EPONA.net - a scholarly resource

A Timeline of Epona Evidence

It is frequently assumed that Epona was a native Celtic goddess predating the Roman conquest of Gaul in 52BCE This may well be true; the evidence for it is sadly lacking. This page collects together the securely dated evidence for Epona and presents it in chronological order.

Dating evidence from inscriptions and archaeology

Many Epona artefacts were found a century or more ago and do not have a secure archeological context or even, in some cases, a documented findspot. They are thus difficult to date closer than 'first to third centuries ce'. Some do have a secure context and can be dated to a closer range; sometimes inscriptions allow a tight range such as the reign of a particular emperor, a particular governor, consulship etc. Occasionally an artefact or inscription is datable to a single year.

Dating evidence from the literature

The North African school of Christian writings, dating to the second and third century when Christianity was still illegal, preserves some early references to Epona. Later, where dedications and stone representations tail off with the adoption of Christianity as a state religion, Christian writings indicate that that the worship of Epona continued to be a problem (as they saw it) until the fifth century or even later. While the upper classes abandoned Epona, the lower classes of mule drivers and stable hands did not.

Table of datable evidence

This table lists all Epona artefacts or inscriptions that are datable to a span of fifty years or less; dated literary references are also included. It can be used to get an idea of the timespan over which Epona evidence falls. Approximate ranges, such as 'second half of the second century' are indicated like this c150-200; accurate ranges are indicated like this 105-118. Sidesaddle depictions are indicated like this: Side; Imperial depictions like this: Imp. Datable inscriptions are indicated like this: Insc and datable literary references like this: Lit.

Date Type Item (findspot) [notes]

?-79 Side DOUBTFUL Pompei (Campana, Italy) [1]
c50-100 Side Baux-Sainte-Croix (Eure, Haute-Normandie, France) [2]
c50-100 Side Nuits-St-Georges (Côte-d'Or, Bourgogne, France) [3]
c75-125 Insc Entrains-sur-Nohain 2 (Nièvre, Bourgogne, France) [4]

c100-160 NOT AN EPONA [5] Winchester (Hampshire, England, UK)
100-122 Insc/Imp Aptaat (Tolbuhin region, Bulgaria) [6]
105-118 Insc Sarmizgetusa (Hunedoara, Romania) [7]
c113-121 Lit Decimus Junius Juvenalis, Satires
123-139 Side Maryport (Cumbria, England, United Kingdom) [8]
132 Insc Roma 3 (Roma, Italy) [9]
133 Insc Roma 3b (Roma, Italy) [9]
134 Insc Roma 4 (Roma, Italy) [9]
135 Insc Roma 5 (Roma, Italy) [9]
136 Insc Roma 6 (Roma, Italy) [9]
137 Insc Roma 7 (Roma, Italy) [9]
6 Jan 138 Insc Roma 8 (Roma, Italy) [9]
138-161 Insc Celje, (Steiermark, Slovenia) [10]
140 Insc Roma 10 (Roma, Italy) [11]
5 Jan 141 Insc Roma 11 (Roma, Italy) [11]
141-180 Insc Auchendavy (East Dunbartonshire, Scotland, United Kingdom) [12]
150-155 Insc 'Carnuntum' (Niederösterreich, Austria) [13]
c150-200 Side Commarin (Côte-d'Or, Bourgogne, France) [14]
c150-200 Imp Köngen 2 (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) [15]
c150-200 Imp Budapest 2 (Hungary) [16]
c150-200 Insc Trier 4 (Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany) [17]
c150-200 Side Alise-Ste-Reine 4 (Côte d'Or, Bourgogne, France) [18]
155-180 Lit Lucius Apuleius, The Golden Ass
161-180 Insc Klagenfurt 4 (Kärnten, Austria) [19]
c166 Lit Minucius Felix The Octavius
c175-225 Imp Beihingen (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) [20]
c175-225 Side Brazey-en-Plaine (Côte d'Or, Bourgogne, France) [21]
c180-220 Side Dalheim (Remich, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg) [22]
187 Insc Duklja 2 (Montenegro, Yugoslavia) [23]
197 Lit Tertullian, Ad Nationes and Apologeticum [24]

c200-233 Side Hausen an der Zaber (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) [25]
c200-233 Side Kuntzig (Moselle, Lorraine, France) [26]
c200-233 Side Mellecey (Saône-et-Loire, Bourgogne, France) [27]
c200-233 Side Wiesbaden 2 (Hessen, Germany) [28]
c200-250 Side Cannstatt 6 (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) [29]
c200-250 Side Charrecey (Saône-et-Loire, Bourgogne, France) [30]
c200-250 Side Colchester (Essex, England, United Kingdom) [31]
c200-250 Side Rully (Saône-et-Loire, Bourgogne, France) [32]
c200-250 Side Santenay (Côte d'Or, Bourgogne, France) [33]
c200-254 Insc Weißenburg (Bayern, Germany) [34]
202 Insc/Imp Kappersburg (Hessen, Germany) [35]
213-235 Insc/Imp Naix (Meuse, Lorraine, France) [36]
215 Insc Kastell Abritus (Razgrad, Bulgaria) [37]
20 Aug 219 Insc Solothurn (Solothurn Canton, Switzerland) [38]
232 Imp Öhringen 3 (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) [39]
c233-266 Side Büchig (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) [40]
c233-266 Side Gourzon-Le-Châtelet (Haute-Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France) [41]
c233-266 Side Großachsenheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) [42]
c233-266 Side Worms 4 (Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany) [43]
238 Insc Szentendre (Pest County, Hungary) [44]
250-251 Insc Thil-Châtel (Côte d'Or, Bourgogne, France) [45]
251-253 Insc Alba Iulia 2 (Alba, Transilvaniei, Romania) [46]
c250-300 Side Freiberg-Heutingsheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) [47]
c250-300 Side Sussey-Vousvres (Côte d'Or, Bourgogne, France) [48]
c250-300 Side Vitteaux (Côte d'Or, Bourgogne, France) [49]

299-303 Imp Thessaloníki (Thessaloníki, Kentrikí Makedhonía, Greece) [50]

405-413 Lit Aurelius Clemens Prudentius, Apotheosis

c475-525 Lit Fulgentius, Expositio Sermonum Antiquorum

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It will be seen that the evidence starts surprisingly late. The earliest datable evidence is a wall painting in Pompei, which must date to before the eruption of Vesuvius in 79CE. The latest is a large marble statue from Thessaloníki dating to 299-303CE. Thus, all Epona evidence dates from the Roman Empire and before the adoption of Christianity by Constantine.

There is a missing century of Epona evidence between the conquest of Gaul in 52BCE and, say, 50CE. A theory that Epona is a pre-conquest Celtic goddess must explain this gap. An alternate theory that Epona is a post-conquest, fusion Celtic-Germanic-Roman goddess is not troubled by this gap.

The earliest dated Epona finds are not centred on Gaul as might be expected. They are widely dispersed - Italy, France, England, Bulgaria, Rumania - and only in later years does the concentration in the three main Gaulish/Germanic areas develop.


1. Stable wall fresco of Epona carrying a baby [Reinach 1895 #60], and a fresco of Epona riding sidesaddle with a cornucopia [Jordan, plate 1]. Since Pompei was destroyed and buried in the eruption of Vesuvius, the frescoes must clearly date before this. The attribution of these frescoes to Epona is contested, Reinach noting that the first might be Isis with an infant Horus; the fresco may represent a Nereid rather than Epona.

2. Moulded white pipeclay figurine of Epona with traces of painting. Findspot was a fanum, also produced Venus figurines, and is dated to the latter part of the first century. If this object is securely dated (ie, not a later insertion into an earlier site), this implies that worship of Epona was widespread enough at this date to enable the commercial mass-=production of moulded statuettes. [Reinach 1895 #10, Magnen & Thévenot #61]

3. Fragmentary Epona found in a sacrificial area of a habitation zone with cattle and sheep bones, statue fragments, sacrificial knives and an altar; dated to mid first century or early second. Seemingly unpublished, on display at the Musée de Nuits-St-Georges.

4. Temple dedication (see full inscription). Thévenot says that the inscription uses 'good first century characters' according to the epigrapher Hirschfeld and dates it to the end of the first century or the beginning of the second, adding "without doubt the oldest inscription honoring Epona, without question". [AE 1984, 0640; Boucher; CIL 13, 02903; Magnen & Thévenot #97]

5. A wooden statue, stated by Anne Ross to be Epona, deposited in a well before 160CE and probably associated with a Romano-British temple constructed in 100CE. Not an Epona, as there is no horse; the item is a wooden figure of a pilgrim holding a key. Ross identified as an Epona solely on the basis of the key. Confirmed as not an Epona with Tony King of University College Winchester, pers. com. 4 April 2005.

6. Dated to the beginning of the second century CE at the time when cohors II Gallorum equitata was staying in Moesia (likely 118). The unit then came to Britain with Hadrian in 122; it was stationed at the fort in Old Penrith from 178 to 249 and only left Britain with the dissolution of the Gallic empire in 274. The sculpture is now in the Museu of Sofia. [Magnen & Thévenot #33 (inscription) and #219(sculpture)]

7. Dedication on an altar to 'the goddesses epona' [CIL III #7904, Reinach 1895 #118] made by Viator, a centurion and drill master (and likely commander) of the personal horse guard of Nigrini, the governor of Dacia. He was also a member of the Equites Singulares, and was keeping the governor under surveliance to guard against plots on the emperors' life. [Speidel pp.47-49]

8. Red sandstone bas-relief on the base of a column or cross base [Rooke], showing the goddess Epona riding side saddle to the right. This is the only complete, Gaulish style Epona known in Britain. [Allason-Jones] It was probably produced by Cohors I Hispanorum Equitata, who were at Maryport 123 to 139. It is now on display at the Senhouse Museum, Maryport.

9. A series of altar dedications discovered in 1855 at the barracks of the Equites Singulares (Emperor's bodyguard). The ones listed here mention Epona in their list of divinities; the one for 139, the year of accession of Antoninus Pius, does not. All the inscriptions mentioning Epona have dedications to a large number of other divinities and the names of a large number of the bodyguards. Besides the common Roman deities (Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Juno, Minerva, Mars) other divinities include Silvanus, Campestribus, Diana, Hercules and Matribus Sulevis. Dated by the titles given to Emperor Hadrian (117-138, awarded 'Pater Patriae' in 128) and by mention of the consuls; in one case a specific day is also mentioned. [Speidel pp.139-144]

10. Dedication to Epona by C. Mustius Tettianus, beneficiarus of the procurator Lisinius Sabinus, in fulfillment of a vow. Dated to Antoninus Pius (138-161). [Reinach 1895 #113, Dise] A second, undated dedication to Epona comes from the same location [Reinach 1895 #144].

11. A continuation of the earlier series of Equites Singulares inscriptions, but under Antoninus Pius. One inscription from 140, another from 141 when the Emperor took the title 'Antoninus Augustus Pius Pater Patriae'. Dated by mention of the consuls.

12. An altar to Mars, Minerva, the Campestres, Hercules, Epona and Victory erected by Marcus Cocceius Firmus at a fort on the Antonine Wall where it crosses the River Kelvin. The altar was found in 1771 during excavations of the Forth and Clyde canal. [Keppie p.105, plate XIII; RIB 2177]. Now in the Hunterian Museum, inventory number F.27. The Hunterian merely date it to 142-180; [Irby-Massie] suggests a more precise date of 158. On the career of Marcus Cocceius Firmus see [Birley].

13. An altar dedication to 'Eponae Augustae sacrum' erected by superiumentarii and muliones of Claudius Maximus, governor of the Roman province of Upper Pannonia from 150-155 CE [AE 1991, 01308 = AE 1992, 01417, Eck]. Carnuntum was the provincial capital. This altar may represent an Epona temple, perhaps shared with other deities [Jobst].

14. Stone bas-relief of Epona riding side saddle to the right, her feet resting on the back of a foal. [Bonnet pp.161-165 and plate 1] Dated to second half of second century on stylistic grounds [Euskirchen #16]

15. A stone Imperial type Epona bas-relief, said by Thévenot to date from the second half of the second century on stylistic grounds. [Espérandieu 1931 #586, Schliermacher p.129, Magnen & Thévenot #211, plate 43]. Two other fragmentary Epona carvings, one a sidesaddle type, are known from the same site [Magnen & Thévenot #154,#268e]

16. Marble stele depicting an Imperial-type Epona, from an unknown site in Dacia. From the collection of Jozsef Fleissig and now on display at Budapest Szépmüvézeti Múzeum (Inv.# 60.15.A). [Nagy, Szabo, Szilágyi] Dated to second half of second century on stylistic grounds. [Euskirchen #222]

17. Inscription to the divine house, Epona, Hermes, Asclepius and Eutropius. Found in a bath house, now in the Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Trier. Seems to have a strong healing focus. [Keune, Steiner, Magnen & Thévenot (supplement) #261]

18. A well carved stone sidesaddle Epona, with traces of paint. Now in the Musée de Alesia. [Magnen & Thévenot #169, Toutain]

19. Dedication to Hercules and Epona Augusta, saluting Marcus Aurelius. [CIL 3, 04784a; Magnen & Thévenot #24]

20. A large stone base relief, found in 1583 (not 1853 as reported in Magnen & Thévenot ); now in the Museum of Stuttgart. A moulding is in the Musée des Antiquités Nationale at Saint-Germain-en-Laye. The upper part shows Epona sitting between two horses to her right and four to her left, and the lower part shows to the left, a four-wheeled cart pulled by two horses (cf Alise-Ste-Reine 2) and to the right, two people sacrificing a pig (cf find context of Nuits-St-Georges). [Esperandieu Germania #404; Magnen & Thévenot #215, plate 62; Schleiermacher p.130]

21. A stone bas-relief of a sidesaddle Epona with foal. Dated [Euskirchen #5] c.175-225 on stylistic criteria.

22. A stone bas-relief of Epona, dated to around 200CE based on the Julia Domna hairstyle. [Magnen & Thévenot #108, plate 23]

23. Inscription to Jupiter Optimus Maximus, 'Eponae Re[g(inae)]' ('Queen Epona) and the genius loci. Dated to 187 by mention of the consuls, Crispinus and Aelianus. [AE 1933, #76]

24. 'Ad Nationes' was written shortly after 'Ad martyres', which is known to have been written in Carthage in 197 on the resumption of the persecution of Christians in that city. [Catholic Encyclopedia]

25. One of three sandstone bas-reliefs of Epona found in the remains of a villa. Now in the Württembergisches Landesmuseum Stuttgart, inventory number RL 65.14.10. Dated to the first third of the third century on stylistic grounds [Euskirchen #72].

26. Sandstone bas-relief of a sidesaddle Epona, built into the wall of a church. Dated to first third of third century on stylistic criteria. [Euskirchen #57, Magnen & Thévenot #120]

27. Large stone bas-relief of a sidesaddle Epona with foal. Dated to first third of third century on stylistic criteria. [Euskirchen #9, Magnen & Thévenot #88]

28. Stone bas-relief of Epona riding sidesaddle on a mare to the right with a basket of fruits. Dated to first third of third century on stylistic crieria. [Euskirchen #102, Magnen & Thévenot #134]

29. A stone bas-relief of Epona riding sidesaddle on a mare to the right. Found in 1926 and now in the Wütternberger Landesmuseum Stuttgart, inventory number RL 1. Described by Thévenot as 'art barbare' [Magnen & Thévenot #150]. Dated by Schleiermacher to start of third century [Schleiermacher p.130]

30. A stone bas-relief of Epona riding sidesaddle on a mare to the right; her feet rest on the back of a foal. [Armand-Calliat p.115; Magnen & Thévenot #84]

31. Fragments of a small stone statuette of Epona riding sidesaddle to the right, dated on stylistic grounds to first half of third century. [Magnen & Thévenot #175].

32. Stone bas-relief of sidesaddle Epona with foal; was built into the wall of a house, now lost. A moulding is in the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Beaune. [Magnen & Thévenot #86, plate 35; Moreau fig.5; Reinach 1895 #30] Dated to c200-250 on stylistic grounds. [Euskirchen #2]

33. A stone bas-relief of Epona riding sidesaddle on a mare to the right, with a small suckling foal facing left. Now lost. [Espérandieu #7513; Magnen & Thévenot #90]. Dated to first half of third century on stylistic grounds [Euskirchen #17].

34. Two inscriptions "Eponae" punched on the inside of two bronze bowls found in a temple context with third century pottery. The site, which was abandoned in 254, was a cavalry fort on the Raetian limes held by Ala I Hispanorum Auriana. [AE 1993, 1237b; Grönke; Kellner pp.87-91]

35. Dedication to the emperor's house (domus divinae) and to Epona (Eponae) by Bilicius Gematus. Dated to 202, the third consulate of Septimus Severus. The stone says II[ but III is assumed from the emperors titles (Parthicus maximus), awarded 28 Jan 198, which rules out a reading of II.

36. A stone altar from Nasium Leucorum, the civitas of the Leuci. Dedication to the Goddess Epona and to the Genius of the Leuci by Tiberius Iustinius Titianus, beneficiarius legati legionis of the XXII legion. To one side, a standing Imperial Epona and to the other, the Genius [CIL 13, 04630; ILS 4838; Reinach 1895 #62]. A date of 210-212 was suggested by Thévenot [Magnen & Thévenot #6, #207] by comparison with an inscription by the same individual at Mainz, dated 210; however the legion only took the name Antoniana in 213 under Caracalla, and took the additional title Alexandriana in 235 under Severus Alexander, so the inscription must lie between 213 and 235.

37. Altar with inscription to the goddess Queen Epona (Deae Eponae Reginae) by Valerius Rufus, beneficiarius consularis legionis of the XI legion. Dated to 215 by mention of the consuls, Q. Maecius Laetus II and M. Munatius Sulla Cerialis. [AE 1993, 01370; Ivanov]

38. Dedication to Epona by Mapilius Restio, a soldier of the XXII legion, immunis consularis curas agens vico Salodunum (in charge of the vicus of Salodunum). Dated to 20 August (XIII kal. Sep.) 219 (by mention of the consuls, Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus II and Q. Tineius Sacerdos II. [Breval p.62; CIL 13, 05170]

39. Stone bas-relief of Epona, similar to the Imperial type, but the right-hand horse is replaced by a figure of the dedicant in cloak, tunic and trousers making an offering on an altar. Found with a Minerva statue dated to 232. The Epona relief carries an inscription to the emperor's house and to Epona by Publius Iunius Insidus. [AE 1990, 0764; Fellendorf-Boerner & Olshausen; ]

40. Sandstone bas-relief of a sidesaddle Epona [Magnen & Thévenot #146; Reinach 1895 #40]. Dated to middle third of third century on stylistic grounds [Euskirchen #89].

41. Stone bas-relief of Epona riding sidesaddle to the right, carrying a whip and with her feet resting on an altar. [Magnen & Thévenot #178; Reinach 1902 p.232]. Dated to middle third of third century on stylistic grounds [Euskirchen #132].

42. A stone bas-relief of Epona riding sidesaddle to the right and holding a basket of fruits [Magnen & Thévenot #145].

43. A worn sandstone bas-relief of Epona riding sidesaddle on a mare to the right holding a basket of fruit. Dated to the middle third of the third century on stylistic grounds. Now in the Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum Mainz, inventory number 3291. [Euskirchen #68; Magnen & Thévenot #129]

44. Inscription to the genius of the troop and to Queen Epona (Genio turmae et Eponae Reginae) by Iulius Victor, a horseman of 'Gordian's own' archers. Dated to 1 June (kal. Iun) 241 by mention of the consuls, 'our lords' (domini nostri) Imp. Caesar M. Antonius Gordianus Augustus II and Clodius Pompeianus. [AE 1973, 0438.]

45. Inscription to the divine house, the goddess Epona, and the Mairae by Sattonius Vitalis. Dated to either 250 or 251 by mention of one consul (the other is illegible): Imp. Caesar C. Messius Quintus Traianus Decius Augustus II. [CIL 13, 05622]

46. Inscription to Epona and hailing 'our lords the two Augusti'. Dated July 251 to August 253, the period in which Volusianus was co-emperor with his father Gallus. [AE 1983, 00815; Cserni; Husar]

47. Fragmentary sandstone bas-relief of Epona, found with third century pottery in the fountain of a villa. [Stork]

48. Large limestone statue of a sidesaddle Epona holding a bunch of grapes on her lap. Later half of third century, on stylistic grounds. [Espérandieu #7077; Magnen & Thévenot #165].

49. Stone bas-relief of a sidesaddle Epona with foal. Later half of third century, on stylistic grounds. [Espérandieu #2335; Magnen & Thévenot #164].

50. Large marble statue of a seated Imperial-type Epona. Found in the Equites Singulares horse guard barracks, near the imperial palace where Galerius dwelt from 299 until his death in 311. After 303 he was guarded by Praetorians, dated thus to 299-303. [Speidel pp.72-74, 141, plate 19]

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L' Année Épigraphique (AE), yearly summary of inscriptions.

Allason-Jones, Lindsay The Women of Roman Maryport p.109 and fig 7.1 in Wilson, RJA (ed) Roman Maryport and its Setting. Trustees of the Senhouse Roman Museum, Maryport, Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society extra series volume XXVIII, 1977. ISBN 1-873124-22-8.

Armand-Calliat, L. (1937) Chalonnais gallo-romain.

Birley, E. (1935) "Marcus Cocceius Firmus: An Epigraphic Study". Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland LXX pp.363-377.

Bonnet, M.H. (1983) "Notes sur quelques représentations inconnues ou peu connues de la déesse « Epona » dans l'est de la France". Revue Archéologique de l'Est et du Centre-Est XXXIV.

Boucher, S. (1984). L'inscription d'Entrains CIL XIII, 2903 et l'apparition du culte d'Epona en Gaule au I siècle de notre ère. Hommages à Lucien Lerat. Paris, Les Belles Lettres: 131-134.

Breval, John Durant (1738). Remarks on several parts of Europe, relating chiefly to their antiquities and history, collected upon the spot in several tours since the year 1723 and illustrated by upwards of forty copper plates, from original drawings, among which are the ruins of several temples, theatres, amphitheatres, triumphal arches, and other unpublish'd monuments of the Greek and Roman times, in Sicily and the south of France.

Collingwood, R.G.; Wright, R.P. (1965) The Roman Inscriptions of Britain (RIB). Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL), 15 volumes.

Cserni, B. (1903) Alsöfehémegyei Történelmi Rég. Évk. 12, p.137.

Dessau, Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae (ILS), Titvli sacri et sacerdotvm. Nvmina Galliae et Britanniae.

Dise, Robert L. Jr. (1996) "The Beneficiarii Procuratoris of Celeia and the development of the statio network," Zeitschrift fur Papyrologie und Epigraphik, v. 113. pp. 286-292.

Eck, W. (1992). "Superiumentari et muliones im privaten Personal eines römischen Statthalters." Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 90: 207-210.

Espérandieu, É. (1907-1966) Receuil Géneral des bas-reliefs, statues et bustes de la Gaule romaine. Paris, Bruxelles, G. van Oest. 15 volumes.

Espérandieu, É. (1931). Recueil général des bas-reliefs, statues et bustes de la Germanie romaine. Paris, Bruxelles, G. van Oest.

Euskirchen, M. (1993) “Epona”. Bericht der Römisch-Germanischen Kommission Deutsches Archäologisches Institut., 74: 607-838.

Fellendorf-Boerner, G.; Olshausen, Eckart (1989). Ein Epona-Relief mit Weihinschrift aus Öhringen, Hohenlohekreis. Fundberichte aus Baden-Württemberg XIX pp.351-358.

Grönke, Eveline (1997). Das römische Alenkastell Biricianae in Weißenburg i. Bayern. Die Grabungen von 1890 bis 1990. Limesforschungen. Studien zur Organisation der römischen Reichsgrenze an Rhein und Donau, Band 25. Römisch-Germanische Kommission des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Frankfurt, M. Zabern

Husar, A. (1995). The Celtic Gods in Roman Dacia. Acta Musei Napocensis (Muzeul National de Istorie a Transilvaniei) 32 pp.85-94.

Irby-Massie, G. L. (1999) Military religion in Roman Britain. Brill, Leiden; Boston.

Jobst, W., Weber, E. (1989). "Ein Heiligtum der Pferdegöttin Epona in Carnuntum (?)." Acta. Arch. Hung. 41: 1989 1-4: 349-358.

Ivanov, R. (1994). Zwei Inschriften der beneficiarii consularis aus dem Kastell Abritus in Moesia Inferior. Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 100 484-486. Full article available online.

Jordan, H. (1872). De genii et Eponae picturis pompeianis nuper detectis. Romae, typis Salviucci.

Kellner, H.-J.; Zahlhaas, G. (1993) Der römische Tempelschatz von Weißenburg in Bayern Mainz.

Keppie, Lawrence (1998) Roman Inscribed and Sculptured Stones in the Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow, Britannia Monograph Series No. 13, Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, Glasgow.

Lafort, Remy (ed) (1908) The Catholic Encyclopedia. Article on Carthage by M. Hassett and article on Tertullian by J. Chapman.

Keune, J.B.(1931) Trierer Zeitschrift, 6, p.152 #2 and plate 2.

Magnen, René; Thévenot , Emile (1953) Épona : déesse Gauloise des chevaux, protectrice des cavaliers. Delmas, Bordeaux. Supplement, 1956.

Moreau, F. (1892) Supplément de L'Album Caranda I. Saint-Quentin.

Nagy, T. (1965) Bull. Mus. Hongrois Beaux-Arts 26, p. 31ff.

Reinach, Salomon (1895, 1898, 1899, 1902, 1903) Épona. Revue archéologique 1895, part 1, 113, 309. Addenda ibid 1898, part 2, 187; 1899, part 2, 61; 1902, part 1, 227; 1903, part 2, 348.

Rooke, Hayman Principal remains found during excavations by Colonel H. Senhouse, drawn by Hayman Rooke, published 1790 Proceeedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London, 1790.

Schleiermacher, W. (1933). "Studien an Göttertypen der römischen Rheinprovinzen." Bericht der Römisch-Germanischen Kommission Deutsches Archäologisches Institut., 23.

Speidel, M. P. (1994). Riding for Caesar: the Roman Emperors' Horse Guards. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-76897-3.

Steiner, P. (1931) Germania 15, 2, 119.

Stork, I. (1981) Arch. Ausgr. Baden-Württemberg pp.162f. Fig. 133;

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